Text & Visuals | Wajahat Ali & Zeina Naseer Butt

Issue 47

The Picture Wall (PW) is one of the principal features of the Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is 1,510 feet long with an average height of 50 feet and forms the northwestern façade of the Lahore Fort. Built circa 400 years ago during the Mughal era, the Wall stands out as an example of the high¬est standard of craftsmanship.Together with the Shah Burj Gate (Hathi Pol), the PW forms the original private entrance to the Fort. It is one of the largest murals in the world embellished in cut glazed tile mosaic work, filigree work, fresco, painted lime plaster and cut brickwork. The wall is exquisitely decorated with imagery of hunting, battle scenes, angels and demons, human figures, animals, birds, as well as geometric and floral patterns. It is mainly responsible for the Lahore Fort’s World Heritage status.

The conservation of the PW was initiated by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), and its country affiliate, the Aga Khan Cultural Service-Pakistan (AKCS-P).  A 11m wide and 17m high segment of the western part of the wall was selected for the prototype conservation. This resulted in an international workshop in January 2018. The outcome of this prototyping and the conclusions of the workshop set restoration principles and standards for the conservation of the entire wall. The first section completed is the 240 feet long western facade. This was done in collaboration with the Walled City of Lahore Authority from July 2018 to March 2019, with generous funding from the Royal Norwegian Embassy, the Government of Punjab, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

The most valuable impact of PW project was the raised awareness among young conservators who were trained in the project as pioneer heritage conservators in Pakistan. Conservation in this part of the world has traditionally involved the reconstruction and replacement of decayed or displaced sections of the original work. However given that the project is inherently a museological monument meant for an observational experience, it was conserved in a manner that does justice to the impact of the original exquisite craftwork. Thus, the material authenticity of the PW, archaeological approach based on the concept of ‘minimal intervention’ was adopted. The focus was largely on preservation where techniques and methodologies were experimented with in order to establish the most conducive way of ‘freezing the existing condition’ and enhancing its aesthetic beauty. Considering the need for reviving the traditional crafts, reconstruction was also done for some parts but only with very particular guidelines such as where there was sufficient evidence particularly for the geometrical patters such as filigree. The decay of the decorated surfaces is too advanced to justify major reconstruction since evidence was lacking. It was also only considered where the original decoration was totally lost and was implemented only where there was a clear aesthetic benefit.

Conservation of PW followed a systematic and sequential order. The foremost part was to conduct a detailed digital documentation, condition survey and analysis of the physical and chemical problems relating to the artwork. This was followed by two phases: preservation/conservation and presentation. Implementation of the previously finalized conservation solutions still required numerous experimentation and analysis since the extended area of the wall presented still unique and unforeseen circumstances. This required additional testing and analysis and also called for the involvement of international as well as local experts. All the applied techniques and procedures were thoroughly evaluated through physical and scientific tests. For the presentation phase an innovative methodology for the re-integration of the tile mosaic was successfully executed using artificially made imitation tiles with the purpose of bringing out the lost pictures of the PW. Reintegration of fresco and brick imitation was also done. Stabilization and consolidation of decorative panels was the first step. Lime based mortars were injected into the detachments behind the panels to increase their adhesion to the wall. Both imported and local materials like lime putty, kankar lime and brick dust was injected where the detachments were relatively larger.

During colonial rule, major repair of the wall was conducted and this also includes covering many deteriorated areas with plaster. These colonial (British) plaster was analyzed and later it was removed manually from the wall since it was concealing some of the original panels. The wall was also covered with dense bacterial growth which was tested to identify the specific types. The biofilm was removed manually with brushes and a biocide solution.

In the project, the most critical issue to be tackled was the loss of glaze in the tile mosaic work due to its exposure to extreme weather conditions. The glaze was stabilized using a silica binder to increase the binding of the glaze to the tile bodies. Micro-holes in the glazes with weak adhesion were made using hand-drills and the solution was injected into these holes till maximum absorption. The same binder was also applied on the tile mosaic panels to increase the mechanical strength of the tile bodies and to reduce their porosity.  Additionally, filling of micro holes with a silica based mortar was also done to seal the surface of the mosaic panels. This mortar was not used on the proto-type because of unsatisfying results. However, continued research allowed for its development and use on the remaining part of the western facade. This methodology of preserving the tile mosaic is an innovative one since there were no previous examples to set a guideline for these treatments.

For the presentation of the tile mosaic work, reconstructed tiles were also added in fragments to panels where the mosaic decoration was totally lost. More importantly, many tile panels had a lot of existing historical work but the glaze layer was deteriorated. Owing to this, the illustrations of the Picture Wall were lost. Following the international conservation policies, no original work was removed or tampered with. Instead, a silica based mortar and pigment was applied on top of the original surface where color was needed to complete the forms of lost pictures. This technique used an innovative mortar and pigment recipe which was developed after extensive research and sampling. Both the mortar and pigment together create a kind of imitation tiles with similar composition and properties as the original tiles.

The fresco and brick imitation plaster has lost adhesion in many areas. It was therefore sealed using lime mortar. A technique known as aqua sporca was used to make the plaster look aged as it did prior to cleaning. This method involves the preparation of a much diluted mixture of pigments which give the color of brownish muddy water. The islands of the paint have been reintegrated using light, fast and alkaline resistant pigments in order to give a suggestion original piece.

New plaster has been applied on all exposed brick masonry. The same lime plaster resembling the original one in color and texture was applied on the exposed brick work on fresco panels and brick imitation frames. Uniform joints were marked both horizontally and vertically where the new plaster merges with the original. Large gaps between the original plaster and the wall were also filled with lime plaster. Similarly, exposed bricks on missing tile mosaic panels were covered with lime plaster that resembles the color and texture of the original tile bodies.

Two horizontal friezes of filigree work run throughout the wall with self-replicating geometric patterns. The intervention bricks were removed and the missing filigree sections have been restored to the original design. After dressing of the surface, the brick tiles were carved according to the design. The terracotta pieces were laid accordingly after which the design is filled with tile mosaics.

Pigeon houses that were completely or partially ruined were reconstructed. The same material and design has been used as the original pigeon house. The fragile brick were replaced with new cut brick tiles. The traditional method of cut and dressed brickwork was followed. Filling of all gaps and stabilization has also been done so that a surface could be prepared for a final finish.

During the documentation process, studies revealed that the original floor level is 2.1 meters below the current ground level. The conclusion of these studies was to remove the latterly added fill to expose the original proportions used in the Mughal era and to reduce the percolation of water which was compromising the structural strength of the wall. New soakage wells were constructed with the purpose of draining out the water that collects in the excavated area below the wall. The excavation work also exposed buried structures from the Sikh and British era. These newly discovered structures are now part of the exhibit made for the visitors.

And the work continues.

167 thoughts on “Picture Wall comes alive: Conservation of Lahore fort picture wall”

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  18. بایسکشوال چیست؟
    بسیاری از روانشناسان معتقدند بروز
    دوجنسگرایی در افراد علت واضح و قطعی ندارد و نمی
    توان عاملی را به صورت حتمی دلیل بروز این رفتار در افراد تعیین کرد.
    افراد در جریان بایسکشوالی بودن شرایط و حالات مختلفی دارند که این شرایط سبب پیچیدگی در روابط و آشفتگی فرد و اطرافیان او در جریان برقراری ارتباطات نزدیک با
    آن ها می شود. هنوز علت دقیق این
    گرایش جنسی مشخص نمی باشد ، ولی دانشمندان با نظریه پردازی های
    خود تاثیر ژنتیکی ، هورمونی و محیطی را موثر
    می دانند و آن را به عنوان یک انتخاب نمی دانند .

    معمولاً افراد افراد را در گروه همجنسگرایان و دگرجنسگرایان طبقه بندی می كنند و
    میانگین موقعیت را چنین نمی دانند.

    چگونه پاسخگو سوالات جنسی کودکان باشیم؟ مشاوره
    همجنسگرایی، علائم همجنس خواهی و مواجهه با آن…
    گرایش بایسشکوال یکی از انواع گرایش های
    جنسی و عاطفی است که امروزه بسیاری از افراد در دنیا این گرایش را دارند.
    فرد در این بازه‌ی زمانی در مورد خودش
    شک دارد و از اینکه می‌بیند هم به همجنس خودش گرایش دارد
    و هم به غیرهمجنس متعجب و آشفته می‌شود.
    اغلب در این مرحله افراد برخی گرایشات خود را انکار می‌کنند و تلاش می‌کنند خود را عادی نشان دهند و بگویند دگرجنسگرا هستند.
    برخی بر این باورند که میان مغز افراد بایسکشوال (دو جنسگرا)
    با سایرین تفاوت‌های ساختاری و شیمیایی
    وجود دارد.
    توجه داشته باشید که متخصصان بسیاری در زمینه تشخیص گرایش های جنسی فعالیت می کنند که در شناسایی
    علائم بایسکشوال ها به شما کمک خواهند کرد.
    نهایتا با دریافت مشاوره از این متخصصان و
    آشنایی بیشتر با شرایط بایسکشوالیست ها،
    تشخیص دوجنس گرایی بسیار آسان و با اطمینان بیشتری همراه می شود.

    پراکندگی دگرجنس‌گرایان
    بر اساس گرایش جنسیباور غلط دیگری که در مورد افراد بایسکشوال وجود دارد، این است که بعضی‌ها، این افراد را با کسانی
    که در اصطلاح دوجنسه هستند اشتباه می گیرند.
    دوجنسیتی‌هایی که دارای سطح بالاتری از «طبیعت هراسی» (ترس از عوامل موجود در طبیعت مانند مار) شده بودند، شادی کمتری را در زندگی خود تجربه
    می‌کردند. این تعامل با زندگی در قالب سوالاتی مانند «آیا شما هرگز احساس کرده‌اید که رابطه جنسی شما بد
    است یا اشتباه؟» اندازه‌گیری می‌شود و می‌تواند نشان‌دهنده احساس نارضایتی افراد از گرایش بایسکشوال
    آنها باشد.
    بایسکشوال به کسی اطلاق می‌شود که نسبت به همجنس و غیرهمجنس
    خود جذابیت جنسی و عاشقانه را تجربه کند.

    زمانی که شما می‌فهمید شریک عاطفی‌تان دو جنسه‌گرا یا بایسکشوال است،
    مسلماً ضربه عاطفی شدیدی را
    تجربه می‌کنید. در حالی که به نظر می
    رسد تعداد مردان دوجنسه کمتر از زنان باشد، این ممکن است به دلیل
    انگ اجتماعی باشد که به عنوان یک مرد دوجنسه ظاهر
    می شود. در حالی که پیشوند “bi” ممکن است به معنای واقعی کلمه به
    معنای دو باشد، دوجنسیتی به معنای جذب تنها به دو جنسیت
    نیست. برای بسیاری از افراد دوجنسه، “bi” نشان دهنده جذابیت به همان
    جنسیت آنها و همچنین جنسیت های دیگر است.
    ممکن است این تعاریف بسیار شبیه
    به هم به نظر برسند، اما یک تفاوت مشخص وجود دارد.

    در این رابطه باید بدانید مرد بایسکشوال همچون
    زن دوجنسگرا معمولا رابطه مقعدی را به رابطه واژینال ترجیح می
    دهد. آزمون دیگری که توصیه می کنیم
    برای درک دقیق تر هویت جنسی خود استفاده کنید تست COGIATI است که می تواند با
    دقت زیادی به شما برای پاسخ به
    سوالتان که آیا دوجنسگرا هستید یا خیر پاسخ دهد.
    همچنین می توان تست The Ultimate Sexuality Test را
    برای پاسخ به سوال آزمون بایسکشوال
    بودن یا نبودن توصیه می کنیم.

    یا شاید شما نسبت به کسی احساسات جنسی ندارید، اما جذابیت عاشقانه را تجربه می کنید.
    دوجنس گرایی یک هویت منحصر به فرد خود فرد است، نه صرفاً شاخه ای از همجنس گرا یا دگرجنس
    گرا بودن. یکی دیگر از علائم بایسکشوال بودن زنان این است که به طور مداوم
    زنان دیگر را بررسی می کنند.
    به طوری که اگر همسر شما بایسشکوال یا دوجنس گرا باشد، در
    حضور شما از زنان دیگر تعریف می کند.
    از طرفی دیگر، عبارت دیگری تحت عنوان
    استریت وجود دارد که عرف ترین شکل اخلاقیات برای برقراری رابطه جنسی است و در آن
    یک فرد تنها به برقراری رابطه جنسی با فرد غیر همجنس خود تمایل دارد.

    رنگ نیلی و بنفش که ترکیب دو رنگ دیگر است، به
    معنی گرایش به هر دو جنس می باشد.
    گرایش جنسی افراد با روسپیگری و هرزگی ارتباط
    نداشته و لزوما تمایل داشتن به بیش از یک جنس به معنی بی تعهدی و خیانت افراد نیست و هیچ گزارشی مبنی بر
    خیانت بیشتر این افراد وجود ندارد.
    زیرا افراد دوجنسگرا نیز مانند افراد دیگر می توانند عشق را تجربه کنند و به فردی دیگر متعهد باشند.

  19. اولین مرکز خدمات پزشکی و پرستاری در منزل سنندج
    ارائه آموزش “مراقبت از خود” به خانواده و مددجو در مراقبت
    از مدد جو( سالمند، عقب مانده ذهنی، حرکتی و مزمن روانی).

    شستشوی معده، تغذیه معده از راه لوله بینی و معده و آموزش
    مراقبتهای مربوط به بیمار و خانواده .

    همکاری و کمک به ناشنوایان و آموزش موارد ضروری به مددجو و خانواده و بازتوانی آنها با کمک
    متخصصین . ارائه مراقبتهای خاص
    در منزل جهت جلوگیری از
    زخم فشاری و غیره . توجه به موارد مشکوك
    و راهنمایی بیماران برای مراجعه به مراکز تشخیص و درمانی .
    آموزش رژیم غذایی مناسب به خانواده ( برای سنین و دوران های مختلف ) به منظور پیشگیری از عوارض ناشی ازکمبود موادغذایی با توجه به وظایف
    و آموزش های پرستاری .
    این بیماران نیاز زیادی به پرستار در منزل و توجه ویژه دارند.

    پرستار سالمند
    به دلیل شلوغی بیمارستان ها و مراکز درمانی می توان از
    عکسبرداری و رادیولوژی در منزل استفاده کرد و یا حتی در صورت احتیاج فرد به خدمات ویژه از
    خدمات مراقبت های ویژه در منزل،با هزینه ای کم تر
    از بیمارستان ها و توجه بیش تر
    و خدمات کامل تر به بیمار استفاده نمود.
    موفقیت هایی که در زمینه ارائه خدمات کسب کرده ایم در سایه اولویت بندی و رهبری کار می بینیم که مهمترین هدف
    رضایت مشتریان می باشد . طی مدت
    زمانی که در زمینه امور پرستاری و درمانی در منزل فعالیت کرده ایم
    توانسته ایم رضایت مشتریان خود را جلب کنیم از این
    رو برخی از مشتریان جدید ما
    به توصیه و پیشنهاد مشتریان سابق مرکز خدمات پرستاری ایده آل را انتخاب کرده اند.

    در مرکز خدمات پرستاری آسایش مراقبت ایده آل سعی کرده
    ایم که پرستاران با تجربه بالا و دارای رزومه کاری خوب را استخدام کنیم .

    بر این اساس این شرکت کلیه خدمات درمانی ، رفاهی
    بیماران و همراهان بیمار که
    از کشور های دیگری برای معالجه
    به ایران آمده اند را فراهم می
    کند . واکسن خود را در منزل
    تزریق کنید و از بیماریهای عفونی در امان بمانید.
    خدمات ما شامل واکسیناسیون آنفولانزا، حصبه، ذات الریه، هپاتیت
    و موارد دیگر است که توسط پرستاران مجرب در منزل ارائه می دهیم.

    بسیاری از پرستاران هستند که تنها امور مربوط به سالمند را انجام می‌دهند، درصورتی که بسیاری از
    آن‌ها علاوه بر امور مربوط به سالمند نظافت روزانه منزل هم به عهده‌شان
    است. در اینصورت حقوق پرستار
    سالمند بیش از یک پرستار معمولی خواهد بود.

    جالب است بدانید که ویزیت پزشک در
    منزل ایده جدیدی نیست و از
    اواسط سال1960 جز خدمات رایج در جهان
    بوده است. اگر به یکی از بیماری‌های مزمن مانند دیابت، بیماری‌های قلبی، کلسترول و فشار خون بالا، سرطان، آلزایمر، پارکینسون، آرتروز و غیره مبتلا هستید و نیاز به ویزیت مکرر
    دارید، دریافت خدمات پرستاری در
    شهر اصفهانبهترین گزینه ممکن برای شما است.
    ابتدا تماس با مرکز اعلام دقیق شرح حال ، شرایط و نیاز سالمند
    در منزل و انعکاس نحوه عملکرد
    مرکز و توافق ابتداییانتخواب نیرو منطبق بر درخواست
    با توجه به تجربه افراد و سابقه کاری نیروها
    . اعلام موارد و مشخصات ، مقرر کردن زمانی جهت
    مصاحبه .اعزام جهت مصاحبهشروع کار نیروی مراقب برای سالمند
    در منزل چند روز به صورت آزمایشیپس از دوره آزمایشی و به وجو آمدن رضایت سالمند و بستگان از نیروی اعزامی و
    توافق طرفین جهت عقد قرار داداقدام میگردد.
    مراقبت از بیمار، امری بسیار حیاتی و ضروری به حساب
    می‌آید. پرستار خصوصی در منزل معمولا برای افراد بیمار و سالمندی
    توصیه می‌شود که به تنهایی زندگی
    می‌کنند و در شرایطی هستند که توان انجام تمام کارهای
    خود را ندارند.
    قند خون اندازه گلوکز موجود در خون انسان است .دانستن مقدار نرمال و
    طبیعی قند خون بسیار پر اهمیت است و
    موجب شناخت بازه سطوح گلوکز
    خون شده و به کنترل دیابت بسیار کمک می کند.

    ممکن است پزشک شما آزمایش قند خون را
    برای بررسی اینکه آیا مبتلا به دیابت یا پیش دیابت هستید، تجویز کند.

    ممکن است فرد پس از عمل جراحی فقط برای
    مدت کوتاهی به سوند نیاز داشته باشد تا مثانه تخلیه شود.
    کاتترهای متناوب معمولاً طوری طراحی می شوند
    که یک بار مورد استفاده قرار بگیرند و سپس دور ریخته شوند و یکبار مصرف هستند.

    ممکن است به شما توصیه شود که در فواصل منظم و یا فقط زمانی که احساس
    می کنید به توالت نیاز دارید، از آن ها
    استفاده کنید. این روش برای کمک به بعضی از نوزادان که قادر به دریافت شیر مادر
    نیستند نیز به کار می‌رود.
    امکان دریافت خدمات فیزیوتراپی
    و کاردرمانی در منزل برای سالمندان، بزرگسالان و کودکان درمنزل با امکان
    پرداخت اقساطی. تعرفه خدمات عرفان سلامت به منظور ارائه خدمات پرستاری و درمان در
    منزل نسبت به سایر مراکز مقرون به صرفه تر بوده و افراد می توانند با هزینه کمتر خدمات خود را سفارش بدهند.

    شستشوی گوش یکی از روش‌های مرسوم برای
    از بین بردن و خارج کردن جرم گوش است.
    این عملیات در مواقعی که حشرات موزی به داخل گوش نفوذ می‌کنند نیز انجام می‌شود.
    شستشوی گوش در منزل یکی از خدمات پرستار در منزل است
    و با مهارت بالا ارائه می‌گردد.

    در فرآیند کاهش ظرفیت بیمارستان‌ها و
    رشد مداوم جمعیت، به‌خصوص
    در شرایط فعلی همه‌گیری ویروس کرونا، تا حدی توجه پزشکان
    و پرستاران به بیماران کاهش پیدا کرده است.
    همین مسئله باعث شد که مرکز پرستاری در اصفهان توانابه فکر فراهم کردن شرایطی برای
    حضور پزشکان و پرستاران در منزل بیافتد.
    شما می‌توانید از طریق سایت اسنپ دکتر نسبت به رزرو خدمات پرستاری در منزل
    اقدام کنید. امیدواریم همکاری
    و خدمات ما بیشتر و بیشتر مربوط به آموزش و ارائه خدمات پیشگیرانه
    صورت گیرد. پرستار در منزلبه کسی می گویند که
    باخدمات پزشکیوخدمات پرستاریآشنایی کامل دارد.مرکز پرستاری ناجیانواعخدمات پرستاری در منزلرا با بهترین کیفیت و همراه مجرب ترین پرستاران
    مرد و زن ارائه می دهد.
    چنین پرستاری هر لحظه در دسترس است و وظایف و امور خانگی را بر عهده می‌گیرد.
    همچنین پرستار موجب می‌شود افرادی که به یک
    همنشین احتیاج دارند، احساس راحتی
    بیشتری داشته باشند. با استفاده از این خدمات
    نگرانی شما بابت مراقبت‌ها رفع خواهد شد و همیشه
    مطمئن هستید که کسی مراقب
    عزیزان شماست. یکی از مزیت های منحصر به فردی که استفاده
    دارد علاوه بر صرفه جویی در زمان و هزینه ها بلکه احساس راحتی بیشتری را به
    وجود می آورد. مرکز خدمات پرستاری آسایش ایده آل با مجوز وزارت بهداشت ، درمان
    و آموزش پزشکی و زیر نظر سازمان بهزیستی کشور قابل اعتماد
    و اطمینان با مدیریت با تجربه و پاسخگوئی شبانه‌روزی و با تیم متخصص و حرفه ای جهت
    رضایتمندی خانوادهای محترم میباشد.
    امروزه خدمات پرستاری در منزل به دلیل بالا رفتن هزینه های بستری در
    بیمارستان ها و مراکز درمانی، در
    دسترس بودن خدمات درمانی با کیفیت و تقاضای بیشتر افرادی که محیط آشنای
    منزل را به فضای عفونی بیمارستان و
    خانه های سالمندان ترجیح می دهند، تقاضا زیادی دارند.

    لازم به ذکر است که افرادی به دلیل ساده به نظر رسیدن فرآیند بستن یا تعویض پانسمان، خود اقدام به انجام این عمل می‌کنند.
    عدم آشنایی با روش‌ها و نوع بستن پانسمان می‌تواند صدمات زیادی را به بیمار وارد کند.
    در نتیجه بهترین راه ممکن
    برای انجام پانسمان در خانه، بهره‌گیری از مهارت‌ها و تخصص
    پرستار در منزل می‌باشد.

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