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โ€œNobody Can Paint An Original Work Of Art. Create Art That Does Not Need Any Audience.โ€

To most people in the art world, Iqbal Geoffrey (1939-2021) was a prankster. The arc of his work is often characterized as a shift from conceptualism to formalism. The machismo-laden history of modern art that has been handed down to us has largely failed to account for self-taught artists with formal concerns, but Geoffrey continuously short-circuited our reliance on such categories to understand our perception while redefining it.ย 

Born in Salarwala in Chiniot and trained as a Bar-at-Law with a career-long practice on Turner Road, Lahore, Iqbal Geoffreyโ€™s process of production, appropriation, and visual interpretation is a testament to his ability for visual and cultural acuity. Is it really possible to evaluate his practice and legacy without reference to the coterie of collectors and followers who played such an instrumental role in propelling him and his art to the status of the immortalized commodity?

In probably his last interview below, Iqbal Geoffrey (who passed away recently) takes us on a journey through his life, with acerbic wit and sardonic humor. Excerpts:

By Aasim Akhtar

1,401 thoughts on “Iqbal Geoffrey 1939-2021”

  1. ืžื™ ืฉื’ืจ ืœื™ื“ ืฉื“ืจื•ืช ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืื• ืจื—ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืฆืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™ ื•ืžื›ื•ื ื™ ืกืคื ืžืคื ืงื™ื, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืจื—ื•ื‘
    ื ื™ืกื ื‘ืื•ื, ืžื‘ืฆืข ืกื™ื ื™ ืื• ืื ื” ืคืจื ืง
    ื™ืชืžืงื“ื• ื‘ืื™ื–ื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ืช.
    ืื—ืจื™ื ื™ืขื“ื™ืคื• ื‘ื™ืœื•ื™ ื—ื•ืฉื ื™ ืขื ื ืขืจื•ืช
    ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืฉื•ืคืขื•ืช ื•ื—ืžื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืื™ืš ืœืคื ืง ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื•ืฉื•ืช
    ื”ื›ืœ – ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืœื›ืœ ืกื•ื’
    ืฉืœ ืžืคื’ืฉ. ืœื ืžืฉื ื” ืื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืกื™ื•ื ืฉืœ ืžืกื™ื‘ืช ืจื•ื•ืงื™ื
    ืžื˜ื•ืจืคืช ืื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืชื• ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ ื—ื•ืœ
    ืคืฉื•ื˜, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ื”ืคื•ืš
    ืื•ืชื• ืžืขื•ื“ ืขืจื‘ ืœืขืจื‘ ืฉื™ื™ื—ืจื˜ ื‘ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ื ืš
    ืœื ืฆื—. ืžื—ืคืฉ ืงื•ืงืกื™ื ืœื™ื ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืจื‘?
    ืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžื˜ืœื•ื•ื™ื–ื™ื” ื•ืขืจื•ืฆื™ ืœื•ื•ื™ื™ืŸ, ื›ืš ืฉืชืžื™ื“ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ื ืขื™ืžื™ื.
    ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ ืงืœืืกื™ – ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ
    ืฉืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคื ืง ื‘ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืจื’ื™ืข ืฉื™ื–ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ื“ื
    ืœื’ื•ืฃ ื•ื™ื”ืคื•ืš ืื•ืชื• ืœืจืขื ืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืง ื™ื•ืชืจ.
    ืžื” ืฉืจื•ืื™ื ื–ื” ืžื” ืฉืžืงื‘ืœื™ื, ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื–ื” ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก
    ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืœ ืฉืืชื ืกื•ืžื›ื™ื ื‘ื• ื•ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื•,
    ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื•ืจื•ืื™ื ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ืืžื™ืชื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืืช ืžื” ืฉืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ื.
    ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืžืกืื’ ื–ื•ื’ื™ ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ืืคืฉืจ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœืงื—ืช ืืช ืžื™ ืฉืืชื
    ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ื•ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืœืžื•ืฉืœื.
    ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื’ ื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืขืจื‘ ืฉืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ืคื•ืชื— ืขื‘ื•ืจืš ื•ืชื“ืข ืฉืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™
    ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ.

  2. ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืœืงื‘ืœ
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™, ืžื‘ืœื™ ืฉื ืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ืชืืžืฅ. ื•ื‘ื›ืŸ, ื–ืืช ืฉืืœื” ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ื›ืœืœ ืœื ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื˜ื›ื ื™ืงืช ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ
    ื”ื–ื•. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื•ืคืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืงื‘ืœ ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืœื™ื•ื•ื™,
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื•ืžืกืื–’ ื‘ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ืคืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื”ืคืจื•ืกื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™
    ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ. ื•ืื›ืŸ, ืœื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ ื›ืžื• ื”ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ ืื• ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื•ื“ื”, ืืš
    ื‘ื˜ื— ืฉืœื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืขื™ืกื• ืฉืžื˜ืจืชื• ืœื”ืขื ื™ืง ืกื™ืคื•ืง ืžื™ื ื™.
    ืจืง ื’ื‘ืจ ื™ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืืชื›ื ื‘ืืžืช ื›ืžื• ืฉืฆืจื™ืš, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื’ื ืœื–ื•ื’ื•ืช.โ€ฆ ื‘ื›ืœืœ
    ื•ื‘ืคืจื˜ ื–ื” ืžืกื•ื’ ื”ื—ืœื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ืจ ืฉื—ืฉืงื” ื ืคืฉื• ืœื‘ืจื•ื— ืœืฉืขื” ืงืœื” ืžืขื•ืžืก ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืœื—ืฆื™ื.

    ื›ืฉื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื’ืข ื ืชื•ืŸ, ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื ืฉืืจ ืžืงื•ืคื—!
    ืชื™ื™ืจืช ืฉื•ื‘ื‘ื” ืชื™ืชืŸ ืœืš ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื.
    ืžืกืื–’ ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™, ืžืคื ืง ื•ืžืฉื—ืจืจ ื‘ื‘ืช
    ื™ื ! ืžืจื’ื™ืข ืืช ื”ื’ื•ืฃ: ืื ื’ื ืืชื ื›ืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ื
    ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ, ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ืฉื”ืžืชื— ื•ืฉื’ืจืช ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื“ื•ืชื™ื”ื,
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืฉื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ืงืœื” ื•ืœืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ืฉืจื™ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชืคืกื•.
    ื”ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืื™ื ืŸ ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช /
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™ – ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื•ืช
    ืฉื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืœื‘ื™ืชืš ืื• ืœืžืœื•ืŸ.

  3. ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืœื˜ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื“ืจื™ื
    ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ื‘ื›ืœืœ, ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ืžื™ืฉื•ืช ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืื™ืจื•ื—, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืขื” ืฉืจืง ืชืจืฆื• ื•ืชื”ื™ื” ื ื•ื—ื”
    ืœื›ื, ื’ื ืื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžื•ืช,
    ื‘ื™ืœื•ื™ ื–ื•ื’ื™ ื”ื›ื•ืœืœ ืฉื”ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื™ืžืจ
    ืื™ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ืžืคื ืง ืขื ืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข
    ื”ื™ื™ืฉืจ ืืœื™ื›ื , ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืขื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžื•ืช
    ืื• ืœื”ื™ืชืงืœ ื‘ื”ื’ื‘ืœืช ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืฆื™ืžืจ.
    ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘: ืื ืœื ืžืฆืืชื ืืช ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉื™ื›ื ื‘ืงื˜ื’ื•ืจื™ื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™
    ื‘ื—ื™ืคื”, ืืชื ืžื•ื–ืžื ื™ื ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืขื•ื“
    ืื•ืคืฆื™ื•ืช ืขื ืฉืืจ ื”ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ื‘ืงื˜ื’ื•ืจื™ื”
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘: ืื ืœื ืžืฆืืชื ืืช
    ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉื™ื›ื ื‘ื“ืฃ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื”, ืืชื ืžื•ื–ืžื ื™ื ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืขื•ื“ ืื•ืคืฆื™ื•ืช ืขื ืฉืืจ ื”ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืืจืฅ.
    ืงื™ืฉื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื›ืŸ ืœืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื’ื‘ืขืชื™ื™ื, ืช”ื ื•ืค”ืช ืชื•ื›ืœื•
    ืœืžืฆื•ื ื›ืืŸ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืžืจื›ื–. ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืžืงื•ื, ืื• ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืคื’ื™ืฉื” ื–ืžืจ ืงืฆืจ ืœืคื ื™, ื•ืื—ืช ืžื‘ื ื•ืช ืชืงื‘ืœ ืืชื›ื
    ืœืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘. ืœื—ืœื•ืคื™ืŸ ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืžืกืื’โ€™ ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ืขื“ ืœืžืฉืจื“ ืื ืืชื ืœื—ื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืื•
    ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ืฉืืชื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื•ืคื™ื ื•ืง
    ืœืคื ื™ ืคื’ื™ืฉื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” – ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ืžืชืื™ื ื•ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ.

  4. ืื ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืจื™ื›ื•ื– ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื, ื”ื™ื•ื ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ืœื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ.
    ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื™ืฉ ืงื•ืจืกื™ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื•ืกืžื™ื ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื, ื•ื‘ื”ืชืื
    ืœืžื›ืœืœื” ื‘ื” ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœืกื˜ื•ื“ื ื˜ื™ื ืœื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ืžืขืฉื™ืช ืฉืœ ืขื•ืจื›ื™ ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ,
    ื™ื“ืข ื•ื›ืœื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื. ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ืคื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ
    ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœืš. ืื– ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื‘ื™ืงื•ืฉ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืœ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืขืจื™ื
    ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื—ื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื•ืช, ืืš ื”ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืฉืชืจืื• ืคื”
    ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืื™ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ.
    ืื•ื•ื” ืฆืขื™ืจื•ื ืช ื•ืกืงืกื™ืช. ื ืขืจืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืจื•ืกื™ื” ืฉืขืฉื›ื™ื• ื ืžืฆืืช
    ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€ฆ ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืฉื ื” ืื™ืคื” ืืชื ื ืžืฆืื™ื – ื‘ื™ืŸ
    ืื ืืชื ืžืชื’ื•ืจืจื™ื ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื‘ืืจืฅ ื•ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™
    ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘ ืื• ืฉืžื ืืชื ื‘ื ื•ืคืฉ ื•ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ื ืขืจืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืื™ืœืช ืื• ืื•ืœื™ ืืชื ืžื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ืงื™ื ืžื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืชืจื™ื
    ืื—ืจ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ – ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ืื™ื ื“ืงืก ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ื”ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืจื™ืฅ’ ืืกืงื•ืจื˜ืก ืืชื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉื›ื.
    ืžืจื’ื™ืข ืืช ื”ื’ื•ืฃ: ืื ื’ื ืืชื ื›ืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ, ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ืฉื”ืžืชื—
    ื•ืฉื’ืจืช ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื“ื•ืชื™ื”ื,
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื”ื•ื“ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืฉื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ืงืœื” ื•ืœืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ืฉืจื™ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชืคืกื•.
    ื‘ื”ืฆืœื—ื”, ืžืงื•ื•ื™ื ืฉื ืฆืœื™ื— ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื›ื ืœืžืฆื•ื ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื”ื•ื“ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ืฉืขื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื.

    ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™- ืื—ืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืœืฉืคืจ ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื ื• ื•ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื’ื™ืœ ืžื•ืคืœื’ ื›ืืฉืจ ืื ื—ื ื• ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืœื“ ื—ื–ืง ื•ืชืงื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืจืคืœืงืกื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ืฉืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื’ื™ืœ ืืš ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœื’ื™ืœ
    ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื ืœื ืžืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ื”ืชืขืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ื™ืจื•ืจื’ื™ืช ืื• ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื—ื•ื“ืจื ื™.

  5. ื”ืžื•ืฆืขื™ื ืœื›ื – ืžื”ืฉื‘ื“ื™, ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื™ืืฆื• ื•ืขื“ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืจืขื ื ื” ื”ืจืงืžื•ืช, ืืš ื’ื
    ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื‘ื—ืจืชื ืืช ืกื•ื’ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื ื—ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืขืกื”
    ื‘ืืฉืจ ืœืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ.
    ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช, ื›ืœ ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื”ืžืขืกื”
    ื—ืœืงื•ืช, ืื™ื˜ื™ื•ืช: ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื‘ืจืžืช ื”ื’ื•ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื
    ืœื™ื˜ื•ืฃ, ืœื™ืฉื” ืงืœื”. ืžืขืกื™ื ื•ืžืขืกื•ืช ืฉื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืขื“ ืœื‘ื™ืชื›ื
    / ืœืžืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉื“ื•ื“/ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ , ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ืžื›ืฉื•ืจ, ื‘ืฉืžื ื™ื ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉื™ื ืœืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ืžื•ืฉืœื ื•ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ื‘ืืฉื“ื•ื“/ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ .
    ื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฆื•ืช ืขื ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข: ืื ื™ืฉ ื™ืฆื ืœื›ื
    ืœื”ืกืชื™ื™ืข ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืžืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ, ื›ืžื• ืœืžืฉืœ ืจืคืœืงืกื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื, ืžืขืกื™ื ืจืคื•ืื™ื™ื ื•ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ืืœื˜ืจื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื
    ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืชื ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืื ื”ื ืื›ืŸ ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืžืงื•ื ื›ื–ื”,
    ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืงื•ื ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™
    ืฉื™ื™ืชืŸ ืœื›ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘. ื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฆื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืจื•ืžื™ื:
    ืชื”ื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ืฉืžืžืฉ ื›ืžื•ื›ื, ืขื•ื“
    ืจื‘ื™ื ื—ื™ืคืฉื• ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื•ืขื•ื“ ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ื—ืคืฉื• ื–ืืช ื‘ืขืชื™ื“.
    ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ: ืื ืืชื
    ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ื‘ืžืื” ืื—ื•ื– ื‘ืชืžืฆืื• ืžืงื•ื ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ืฉืขื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื,
    ืื ื• ืžืžืœื™ืฆื™ื ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืฉื™ื—ืช ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืขืœ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™, ืขืœ ื”ื”ืกืžื›ื•ืช
    ืฉืœ ื”ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ื•ืžื” ื”ื ื‘ืขืฆื ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื.
    ืžื›ื•ื ื™ ืกืคื ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ืœืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืžืคื ืงืช.
    ืฉื•ืŸ ืžืขืกื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื”.
    ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื” ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื•ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื”.

    ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืœืคื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจื˜ื™,
    ืื• ืœื—ื™ืœื•ืคื™ืŸ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ื—ื“ืจื™ื ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื”
    ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื•ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื.

  6. ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืจื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืช ื™ื ืžืžื•ืงืžืช ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”-14
    ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ืชื” ื•ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”-55 ื‘ืฉื˜ื—ื”.
    ื˜ืื˜ื™ืื ื” ื”ืžื”ืžืžืช ืžื‘ืช ื™ื. ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœื ื• ืžื•ื‘ื˜ื—ื™ื ืœื›ื ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ืฉืขื‘ืจื• ืื™ืžื•ืช ืžื“ื•ื™ืง ื•ื”ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ
    ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขืœ ื’ื’ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื’ื ืื ืืชื ืจืง ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ ืื•ืจื—
    ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื˜ืจื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื”, ืชื›ื™ืจื• ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืžืขืžื™ืงื” ืืช ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™ , ืชื‘ื™ื ื• ืžื”
    ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื–ื” ืื• ืื—ืจ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ืฉืชืงื‘ืœื• ืืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื”, ืชื‘ืฆืขื• ื’ื ืืช
    ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื‘ื ื•ืชื ืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉืช.
    ืื‘ื•ื“ื” ื•ื˜ืจื•ื“ื” ืžืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ื ื”ื™ื ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™
    ืฉื™ืจื’ื™ืขื” ืืช ืžื•ื—ื” ื”ืงื•ื“ื— ืžืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช
    ืขืœ ื”ืขืชื™ื“ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื™ืจื”. ืื– ืฉื—ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืคื•ืจื ื•, ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื•ื ื•,
    ืžื—ืคืฉื•ืช ืžืขืกื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืฉื™ืคื™ื’ ืžื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืชื—ื™ื
    ื•ื™ืขื ื™ืง ืœื”ื ืืช ื”ืฉืœื•ื•ื” ื”ื’ื•ืคื ื™ืช ื•ื”ืจื’ืฉื™ืช ืœืื—ืจ ื™ื•ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžืคืจืš.

    ืื•ืœื™ ืชืชืคืœืื• ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืื‘ืœ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฉื—ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืคื•ืจื ื• ื›ืžื•
    ื’ื ืœื ืžืขื˜ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืžื—ืคืฉื•ืช ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช
    ืฉื™ื ืขืžื• ืืช ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื”ืกืงืกื™ ืœืื—ืจ ื™ื•ื ืืจื•ืš ืฉืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืื• ืฆื™ืœื•ืžื™ื
    ื‘ืชื ื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืืงื˜ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ืชืžื™ื“
    ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืจืื•ืช.

  7. ื”ืจืืœ ื‘ืœื• ื”ื‘ืขืœื™ื, ื—ื‘ืจ ืœื–ื™ืงื• ื“ื’ื™ื,
    ื“ื™ื™ื’ ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืืŸ ื“ื’ื™ื ื•ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื ื›ื‘ืจ 45
    ืฉื ื™ื – ื™ื—ื“ ื”ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ื‘ืชื—ื•ื.

    ืจ ืื ื” ืœื™ื™ืงืŸ- ืจื•ืคืื” ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช ื•ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื‘ืขืœืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืชืง ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืž20 ืฉื ื”.
    ื˜ื™.ืืก.ืื™ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื™ืฆืจื ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ืช ื”ืขื•ืกืงืช ื‘ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ
    ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ื—ื ื™ื” ื‘ืขืœืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ 15 ืฉื ื” ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ื”ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช, ืžืชื—
    ื ืžื•ืš ื•ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ื”ื—ื ื™ื”. ืžื•ืจืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ืช ื‘ืช 29.

    ืงื˜ื ื” ืงื•ืžืคืงื˜ื™ืช ืžื”ืžืžืช. ื‘ื—ื•ืจื”
    ื‘ืช 20 ื—ืžื•ื“ื” ืืฉ ืขื ืคื ื™ื ื™ืคื™ื™ืคื™ื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืฃ ื ืฉื™ ื•ืžืขื•ืฆื‘.
    ืกืžื“ืจ ืงื•ืกืžื˜ื™ืง – ื‘ืกืคื ื”ืžืžื•ืงื ื‘ืจืžืช
    ืคื•ืœื’ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™, ืงืœืืกื™, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ื™ื“ื™ื™ื, ืขื™ืกื•ื™
    ืจืงืžื•ืช ืขืžื•ืง, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•-ื•ื•ื“ื”, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ืžืชืจืืคื™, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืœื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื”ืจื™ื•ืŸ,ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืคื ื™ื ื•ืงืจืงืคืช, ื“ื™ืงื•ืจ, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื ื•ืจืคืœืงืกื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ืชืชืจื•ื•ื—ื• ื‘ื’’ืงื•ื–ื™
    ืื• ื‘ืืžื‘ื˜ ืฉืžื ื™ื ื•ืžืœื—ื™ื, ื•ืชืงื‘ืœื• ืคื™ื ื•ืง ืื ืจื’ื˜ื™ ื›ืžื• ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืื™ื ื“ื™ืื ื™ ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ื ื—ืžื•ืช,
    ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ืคื™, ื›ื•ืกื•ืช ืจื•ื— ื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™.
    ืื ืชื–ืžื™ื ื• ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืคื•ืจื˜ืœ ืืจืฆื™ ื•ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืฉืœ ืžืขืกื™ื ื•ืžืขืกื•ืช, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืกืžื•ื›ื™ื ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ืžืขืกื•ืช ืฉื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืœ ื”ืžืขืกื™ื,
    ื ื‘ื—ืจื• ื‘ืงืคื™ื“ื” ื•ืจืง ืžื ื•ืกื•ืช ืžืื•ื“ ืฉื ืจืื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘
    ืขื ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืกื˜ืจื™ืœื™ ื•ืืชื ืชื—ื•ืฉื• ืฉืืชื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ืกืคื ืžืคื ืง ื•ืžื’ืข ืžืžื›ืจ ื›ืš ืฉืœืื—ืจ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™,
    ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืžืชื•ืง. ืฆืžื™ื’ื™ ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืก ื”ื™ื ื” ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžืชืžื—ื” ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ืจ ื’’ื ื˜ื™ื ืžื’ื ื–ื™ื•ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืžื›ื•ื ื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ื•ืžืชืงื“ืžืช
    ืœื™ื™ืฉื•ืจ ื’’ื ื˜ื™ื. ื—ื‘ืจืช ืคืœื™ื™ืจ ื“ื™ืœ ืขืœื•ื ื™ื ื”ื ื” ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžืชืžื—ื” ื‘ืžืชืŸ ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื•ื”ืคืฆื” ืœื›ืœ
    ื”ืืจืฅ ืœื—ื™ืœื•ืง ืขืœื•ื ื™ื .

  8. ื™ ืขืžื™ืช ื”ืจ-ืฉืœื’, ื‘ืžืื™ ื•ืžืคื™ืง ืžื•ื–ื™ืงืœื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืจ.
    ื™ ืืœื™ืจืŸ ื ื•ื ื”, ืืžืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ื•ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’.
    ื”ื—ืœ ืืช ืงืจื™ื™ืจืช ื”ืงืขืงื•ืขื™ื ื•ื”ืคื™ืจืกื™ื ื’ ื‘ืฉื ืช 2006
    ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืฉื ืœืžื“, ื”ืชืžื—ื” ื•ื”ืชืžืงืฆืข. ืื™ืœืŸ ื›ื ืจ, ื”ืžืžืฆื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื–ื, ืฉื ืœืขืฆืžื•
    ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืืกืชื˜ื™ืช ื•ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœื›ืœ ื ืคืฉ.
    ื‘ืฉื ืช 2010 ืขื‘ืจ ืœืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช ืฉื ื”ืชืืจื— ื•ืขื‘ื“
    ื‘ืฉื ื™ื™ื ืžื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืชืงื“ืžื™ื ื•ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื˜ืงืกืก.
    ืื ื• ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืืš ื•ืจืง ืขื ื”ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ืžืชืงื“ืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื ืฃ.
    ืื ื• ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ืœื›ื ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืชืง ืฉืœ ืœืžืขืœื” ืž- 30
    ืฉื ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ืžื›ืฉื•ืจ ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™
    ืžืชืงื“ื ื”ืžืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ืžื™ืงื•ื ื”ื ื–ื™ืœื” ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื ื–ืง ืœืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช!
    ื›ื“ื™ ืœื ืœืœื›ืช ืœืื™ื‘ื•ื“, ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื›ื•ืœ
    ื‘ืจืจื• ืขืœ ืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื•ื”ื—ืœื™ื˜ื• ืื™ื–ื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ื ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“:
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืจืคื•ืื™, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉื‘ื“ื™, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื ืื‘ื ื™ื ื—ืžื•ืช ืื• ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช?
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื ื“ื™ืจ ื•ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘.
    ื›ืœ ื”ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื ืœื ื•ืคืฉ ืžื•ืฉืœื- ื‘ืจื™ื›ืช ืฉื—ื™ื™ื”,
    ืกืคื ืคืจื˜ื™, ืื‘ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืกื•ื•ื™ื˜ื” ืžื•ืฉืœื ื•ื”ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™, ื—ื“ืฉื ื™ ื•ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืžืื•ื“
    ืœื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื ื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ืื ื™ ืžืืžื™ื ื” ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืฉืื ื• ื—ื•ื•ื™ื, ื ื—ืงืงืช ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ ื‘ืฉืชื™
    ืจืžื•ืช – ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ืช ื•ื”ื ืคืฉื™ืช ื•ื›ืœ ื—ื•ื•ื™ื”
    ืžืฉืคื™ืขื” ืขืœ ืชืคืงื•ื“ื ื•. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื‘ืื™ื ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื—ืฉืคื ื™ื•ืช, ื–ื›ืจื•
    ื›ื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื›ื ืœื”ืชืคืฉืจ. ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ืžืคื ืงื™ื ื‘ื ืชื ื™ื”/ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื”ืคื›ื• ืœืื˜ืจืงืฆื™ื” ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ืคื™ื ื•ืง ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื,
    ืืš ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ืจืช ื”ืขืœ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื”ื™ื ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืฉืœื•ื•ื” ื•ืจื•ื’ืข.

  9. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื™ืฉ ืงื•ืจืกื™ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื•ืกืžื™ื ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื,
    ื•ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืžื›ืœืœื” ื‘ื” ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœืกื˜ื•ื“ื ื˜ื™ื ืœื”ืชื ืกื•ืช
    ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ืžืขืฉื™ืช ืฉืœ ืขื•ืจื›ื™ ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ,
    ื™ื“ืข ื•ื›ืœื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื. ืงืœื™ื ื™ืงื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช,
    ื ื’ื™ืฉื•ืช, ื ืขื™ืžื•ืช, ืฉืงื˜ื•ืช ื•ืžืขื•ืฆื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืžืฉืจื”
    ืื•ื™ืจื” ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ืช ื•ืžืจื’ื™ืขื”. ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ
    ืื ืฉื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ื ืขื–ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ื”ื•ื“ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ.

    ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืžืœื•ื•ืช ืื•ืชืš
    ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื”ืื™ื“ื™ืืœื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจืš, ื‘ื™ืŸ
    ืื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ื•ื™ื™ืช ื—ื‘ืจื”, ื”ื’ืฉืžืช ืคื ื˜ื–ื™ื•ืช ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืช ืื• ืคืฉื•ื˜
    ืžืคื’ืฉ ืžื™ื ื™ ืฉืกื•ื‘ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืชืขื ื•ื’ื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ืคื ื™ื™ื
    ืฉืœืš. ืืชืจื™ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ืžืฆื™ื’ื™ื ืœืš ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืฆืขื™ืจื•ืช, ื›ื”ื•ืช, ื‘ืœื•ื ื“ื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“.

    ื”ื™ื ื ืขืจืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื™ืคื”ืคื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขืœืช ืžืจืื” ืžื”ืžื.
    ืื ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืกืงืก ื–ื•ืœ ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืกืžื˜ื”- ืื™ืŸ
    ืœื›ื ืžื” ืœื—ืคืฉ ืขื ื ืขืจืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ฆ ื™ืคื™ื™ืคื™ื” ื‘ืช
    24, ื’ื•ื‘ื” 1.68, ืขื ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื“ื•ื’ืžื ื™ืช ื•ื–ื•ื’ ืฉื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื•ืช, ื™ืฉ ืœื”โ€ฆ
    ืืจื™ื ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืจื” ื—ืžื” ื‘ืขืœืช ื™ื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ื“ื•ื’ืžื ื™ืช ืคืœื™ื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืืžื™ืชื™ืชโ€ฆ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื”
    ื‘ืขืœืช ื•ื•ืชืง ื•ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ื•ืืžื™ืŸ.
    ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ื™ืฉ ื•ื•ืชืง ื•ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืฉื ื™ื. ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืฅ
    ื”ืคืงื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื” ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื•ื‘ืขืœืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ
    ืจื‘ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืืจื•ืขื™ื. ืื•ื”ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžืชืžื—ื” ื‘ื”ืงืžืช ืื•ื”ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื ืจื—ื‘, ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื
    ื’ื ืžืกื™ื‘ืช ืจื•ื•ืงื™ื ืžืกื™ื‘ืช ืจื•ื•ืงื•ืช, ื™ืžื™ ื”ื•ืœื“ืช ื•ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ ื—ื‘ืจื”.

    ืžืฉื” ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืขื•”ื“ ื•ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ืžืฉืจื“ ืขื•”ื“ ื‘ืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื•ื”, ื”ืžืชืžื—ื” ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื“ื™ื ื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉื”, ืฆื•ื•ืื•ืช ื•ื”ืกื›ืžื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ.

    ืืœื˜ืจื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ yogv2999 8 ื‘ืžืจืฅ 2021.

    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืœื’ื‘ืจ ืž ื’ื‘ืจ, ืžืžืขืกื” ื‘ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ืœืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ื”ื ืฉืžื” ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื•ืžืฉื—ืจืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ.

  10. ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื›ืš, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœืืชืจื™ ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจื”
    ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืขืกื” ืžืชื•ืš ืชืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืืชืจ. ืžื” ื”ืขืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช
    ื‘ื—ื“ืจื”? ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืœื‘ื™ืœื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง
    ? ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘. ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืขื™ืŸ – ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™
    ื”ืงืœืืกื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ื•ื”ืื”ื•ื‘
    ืฉืจื•ื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ื‘ื•, ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ื“ื™ืขื” ื•ื”ื›ืจื” ื‘ืขื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืŸ
    ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง, ืœื›ื™ืฃ ื‘ืœื‘ื“.
    ื–ืืช ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื”ืžืกืข ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืžื“ื•ื™ืง
    ื•ื”ื™ืขื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื“ื™ืฃ. ื”ืžื™ื ื”ื—ืžื™ืžื™ื ื•ื ื™ื—ื•ื— ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™
    ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ื— ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ื ืืชื›ื ืœืžืฆื‘ ืฉืœื• ื•ืจื’ื•ืข ื™ื•ืชืจ – ื•ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืš
    ืชืจืฆื• ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉืœื›ื. ื˜ืืงืก ืคืจื™ ืกื•ืคืœื™ื™ ื‘ืข”ืž ืขื•ืกืงืช ื‘ืžื›ื™ืจืช ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ื–ื•ืœ ืžืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ื— ืžื–ื” ื›-10 ืฉื ื™ื. ืžื•ืกืš ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื™ื•, ื”ื•ืงื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืžืชื•ืคืขืœ ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื”, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื‘. WOPA ื”ื•ื ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ื—ื“ืฉื ื™ ืฉืžืฉื ื” ืืช ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฆื‘ืช ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืกื˜ืืจื˜-ืืค ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื”ืžืกืข ืœืฆื“ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืชื—ืช ืงื”ื™ืœื” ืื—ืช. ืื ื• ืžืชืจื’ืฉื™ื ื•ื’ืื™ื ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืฉืœื ื•, ืืœื‘ืจื˜ 2000. ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืฉืœื ื•, ื‘ืขืœืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ื‘ืžืฉืš ืขืฉื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœืžื™ื. ืื ื™ ื‘ืขืœืช ืชื•ืืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืžื ื”ืœ ืขืกืงื™ื ื•ื‘ืขืœืช ืชื•ืืจ ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื, ื›ืš ืฉื”ื™ืงืฃ ื”ื™ื“ืข ืฉืœื™ ื ืจื—ื‘. ืื ื™ ืžื™ืจื‘ ืžื•ืจื” ืžื•ืกืžื›ืช ืœื™ื•ื’ื” ืื™ื ื˜ื’ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื™ื•ื’ื” ืชืจืคื™ื”. ืžื˜ืคืœืช ืžื•ืกืžื›ืช ื‘ื ืฉื™ืžื” ืžืขื’ืœื™ืช (ืจื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื ื’) ืื ื™ ืžืืžื™ื ื” ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ืฉืœื• ืœืจืคื ืืช ืขืฆืžื•.

  11. ืžื ื’ื“, ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ืชืงื‘ืœื• ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืœืื•ืจืš ื›-45 ื“ืงื•ืช ื•ืขื“ ืฉืขื”, ื”ืžื—ื™ืจ ืฉืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ื ื•ื— ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื”ืคื•ืš
    ืืช ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืœื ื’ื™ืฉื” ื’ื ืœื›ื! ื‘ืžืชื—ืžื™ ืกืคื ืขื ืœื™ื ื” ืชืงื‘ืœื• ืœืจื•ื‘, ื—ื“ืจ ืคืจื˜ื™ ืฉื‘ื• ื™ืฉ
    ืื‘ื–ื•ืจ ืžืœื, ื›ืžื• : ื—ื“ืจ ืจื—ืฆื”, ื’’ืงื•ื–ื™,
    ืžื™ื˜ื” ื–ื•ื’ื™ืช, ื˜ืœื•ื™ื–ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจืช ืœื›ื‘ืœื™ื
    ื•ืขื•ื“, ืื•ืœื, ื’ื ืชื™ื”ื ื• ืžื”ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืฉื™ืฉ
    ื‘ื›ืœ ืกืคื ื›ืžื• ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื–ื•ื’ื™ ื•ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื
    ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ืฉืืคืฉืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืฉืœื•ื ื›ืžื•: ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืคื ื™ื, ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืคื™, ืืจื•ื—ื” ื–ื•ื’ื™ืช ื•ืขื•ื“.

    ืกืคื ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ืžืชื”ื“ืจ ื‘ืชืคืจื™ื˜ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ืขืฉื™ืจ, ืžืžื ื• ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ
    ื”ืžื•ืชืื ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื, ืœื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื” ื•ืžืฉื—ืจืจืช.
    ืกืคื ื”ืžืžื•ืงื ืขืœ ื’ื’ ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืฃ ืขืœ ื ื•ืฃ ื”ืขื™ืจ, ื‘ืžืชื—ื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื ื•ืช ืžื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื‘ืจื™ื›ืช ืฉื—ื™ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ืžืžืช ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ื”.
    ื ืขืจื™ ื”ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืฉืœ “ื“ื•ื“ื• ืกืคื” – ื›ื™ ืื ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืคืœื™ื™ื‘ื•ื™, ื–ื” ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืื•ืชื•.
    ืื ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืกืคื ื–ื•ื’ื™ ืžืคื ืง
    ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื™ื•ื ื”ืื”ื‘ื”, ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ืœื“ืช
    ื•/ืื• ืœื›ืœ ืื™ืจื•ืข ื›ื–ื” ืื• ืื—ืจ, ื”ื’ืขืชื ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ!
    ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ ืคื ื˜ื–ื™ื•ืช ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื’ืฉื™ื
    – ื™ืฉ ืžืฆื‘ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื•ื™ืงื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืขืฉืชื” ืืช ื–ื” ื›ื‘ืจ.

  12. ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื’ื ืืชื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื›ืชื™ืจ
    ืืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉืœื›ื ื›ื”ืฆืœื—ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื”, ื“ืขื• ื›ื™ ื’ื ืœื›ื ื™ืฉ ื—ืœืง ืฉืื—ืจื™ื• ืœืžืœื.
    ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื›ืœ
    ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืžื•ื›ื ื™ื ื•ืชืคื™ืงื•
    ืžืžื ื• ืืช ื”ืžืงืกื™ืžื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืฆื™ืข,
    ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ื• ืœื—ืœื•ืง ืืชื›ื ื’ื ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืงืฆืจ
    ืขื ื”ื”ื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืคืกืคืก. ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืื•
    ืœืžืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช , ื—ื•ืกืš ืžื›ื ื–ืžืŸ, ืคืงืงื™ื ืžืขืฆื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื“ืœืง, ื›ืš ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืš
    ืœืฆืืช ืžืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ื•ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ืœื›ื
    ื›ืš ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื›ืžื•
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื•ืœื—ื•ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื™ ืจื‘
    ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืœื”ืชืžืกืจ ืœื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืขืกื•ืช
    ืืฉืจ ื™ืคื ืงื• ืืชื›ื ืžื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืขื“ ืจืืฉ.
    ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื‘ื ื™ ื–ื•ื’ ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืจื•ืžื ื˜ื™ืช ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืืช ื”ืฉื’ืจื” ื•ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช.
    ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืœ ืฉืœื ื• ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืชืจืฉื ืžืฉืœืœ ืžืขืกื™ื, ืขื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘ ื•ืžื›ื•ื ื™ ืขื™ืกื•ื™, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื
    ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืขื“ ืคืชื— ื”ื‘ื™ืช! ื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฆื•ืช ืขื ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข: ืื ื™ืฉ
    ื™ืฆื ืœื›ื ืœื”ืกืชื™ื™ืข ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืžืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ,
    ื›ืžื• ืœืžืฉืœ ืจืคืœืงืกื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื, ืžืขืกื™ื ืจืคื•ืื™ื™ื ื•ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ืืœื˜ืจื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืชื ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ื•ืื ื”ื
    ืื›ืŸ ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืžืงื•ื ื›ื–ื”, ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืงื•ื ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืฉื™ื™ืชืŸ ืœื›ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘.

  13. ื”ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ืžืฉืชื ื™ื ื’ื ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืกื”,
    ื›ืš ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœืงื—ืช ื–ืืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ. ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืจืคื•ืื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช – ืื
    ืชืจืฆื• ืžืขืกื” ืจืคื•ืื™ ืขื“ ื”ื‘ื™ืช, ื”ืชืขื ื•ื’
    ื”ื–ื” ื™ืขืœื” ืœื›ื ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจืื–’ ื•ืœื“ืœืง ืฉื”ืžืขืกื” ื”ืฉืงื™ืข ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืืœื™ื›ื.

    ืื•ืจืš ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืจืคื•ืื™ – ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืจืคื•ืื™ ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืืจื•ืš ื™ื•ืชืจ – ื›ื›ื” ื”ืžื—ื™ืจ ืฉืœื• ื™ืขืœื”.
    ื’ื ืื ืชื–ืžื™ื ื• ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืœื•ืŸ ื‘ื—ื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืฉื‘ื• ืืชื ืฉื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืจื”, ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจื”
    ืชืฉืชื ื”, ื”ืื•ืจื•ืช ื™ืชืขืžืžื• ื•ื ืจื•ืช ืจื™ื—ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื›ืžื” ืคื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื—ื“ืจ,
    ืืชื ืชืฉื›ื‘ื• ืจืง ืขื ืžื’ื‘ืช ืขืœ ื’ื•ืคื›ื ืฉืชืจื“ ืื˜, ืื˜, ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืœื—ืœืงื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ.
    ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื”ื˜ื›ื ื™ืงื” ืฉืœ ืžืคื’ืฉ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืชืœื•ื™ื”
    ื‘ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืื ื˜ื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืื–ื•ืจ
    ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ. ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืฉื•ื•ื“ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ืคื”
    ื•ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื ื• ืœื ืจืง ืœื”ืคื—ื™ืช ืœื—ืฆื™ื,
    ืขื•ืžืกื™ื ื•ื›ืื‘ื™ ืจืืฉ, ืืœื ื’ื ืœืฉื—ืจืจ ืฉืจื™ืจื™ื ืชืคื•ืกื™ื, ืœื”ืคื—ื™ืช ื›ืื‘ื™ ื’ื‘ (ื•ื›ืื‘ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื) ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื•ืจื ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ืžื—ื–ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ื ื‘ื’ื•ืฃ.
    ืžื—ืงืจ ืžืฉื ืช 2002 ืžืฆื ื›ื™ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืขื™ืกื•ื™
    ื”ืคื—ื™ืช ืืช ืชื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ืื‘ื™ ื”ืจืืฉ ื›ืชื•ืฆืื” ืžืžืชื— ื›ืจื•ื ื™.
    ืจืืฉื™ืช, ื“ืขื• ื›ื™ ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืขื•ืœื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืžื” ืฉืืชื ืžื“ืžื™ื™ื ื™ื.

  14. ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ื—ื“ืจื™ื ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืฉืœื•ื ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื” ื›ืืฉืจ
    ืฉื ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ื™ื—ื“ ืœืžืกืคืจ ืฉืขื•ืช
    ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช, ื‘ืœื™ ื˜ืœืคื•ื ื™ื ืจืง ืืชื ื•ื‘ืŸ ืื• ื‘ืช ื–ื•ื’ื›ื ื•ืœืฉืœื‘ ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ืช ื•ื—ื•ืฉื™ืช ืฉืœื›ื
    ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืื• ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืžืกืื’’ ืžืคื ืง ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืžื” ืฉืชื‘ืงืฉื•.
    ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ืฉื›ืœ ื’ื‘ืจ ื–ืงื•ืง ืœืžืขื˜ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืจืจื ื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ื‘ืขืœื™
    ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื, ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ืคืœื˜ืคื•ืจืžื” ืžืขื•ืœื” ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ
    ืขืœ ืคื™ ืงืจื™ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืคื’ืฉื™ื ืืฆืœื™
    ื‘ื ืชื ื™ื”. ืื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ – ืœื•ื”ื˜ ื•ื—ื•ืฉื ื™.
    ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืคืœื™ืงืฆื™ื”
    ืžืชืงื“ืžืช ื•ืจื—ื‘ื”, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืชืจ ื’ื ืžื™ื“ืข ืคืจื˜ื ื™ ืขืœ ื ืขืจื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืขืจื‘ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ.
    ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื” ืžื’ื•ืฉ ื“ืŸ ืื• ืœื, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ.
    ืœื ื›ืœ ืกื•ื›ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื–ื”ื•ืช.
    ื””ืœื”ื™ื˜” ืฉืœ ื”ืคื ื˜ื–ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืฉื—ืงื™ื ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืื—ื™ื•ืช ืฉ”ืžืจืคืื•ืช” ืื•ืชื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ.

    ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ “ืคืจื‘ืจ”
    ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืฉ ื“ืŸ’ ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื
    ื‘ื’ื•ืฉ ื“ืŸ, ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื ืฉืœ ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืจื—ื‘ ืฉืœ ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช, ื‘ืชื™ ืงืคื”, ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื›ื•ืœื ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื•ืฆื ื“ื•ืคืŸ
    ืฉื”ื•ืคืš ืืช ื”ืคืจื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœืžืงื•ื ื ื”ื“ืจ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื•.

  15. ืงื•ืœืงืฆื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืชื’ ื ืžื›ืจื•ืช ื‘ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืขืฆื‘ื™ื
    ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ืคืจืง ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืขื•ื ื’ ื”ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ื•ื”ืžื™ื ื™
    ืฉืœืš ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžืจื›ื–ื•, ื›ืฉื”ื“ืœืช ื ืกื’ืจืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื™ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ืืชื”
    ืชื–ื›ื” ืœืื™ืจื•ื— ื•ืœืคื™ื ื•ืง ืžืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ื—ืจืช.
    ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื”ืœื™ืš ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืœื™ื•ื•ื™,
    ื™ืฉ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืœืจืžืช ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื”, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื™ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืจืื” ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™
    ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจื” ื‘ื˜ืจื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื”. ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืกื˜ืื•ื›ื•ื ื“ืจื•ื–ื™ืก, ื”ื“ื™ืกืง ื”ื‘ื™ืŸ-ื—ื•ืœื™ื™ืชื™ ื”ืกื—ื•ืกื™ ืžืชื™ื™ื‘ืฉ
    ื‘ื”ื“ืจื’ื”, ืžืื‘ื“ ืžื’ืžื™ืฉื•ืชื• ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ื™ื•ืจื“, ื”ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ืžืชื›ื ืกื•ืช,
    ื•ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื–ื”, ื”ื”ืชื›ืชื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืฉื˜ื—ื™ ื”ืžืคืจืง
    ื‘ืžืคืจืงื™ ื”ืคื ื™ื ืžื•ืคืจืขืช – ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืกืจ
    ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื ื’ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื™ ื”ืžืคืจืงื™ ืฉืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื“ืจื”.
    ื™ืฉ ืžื˜ืคืœื™ื ืฉื™ืชืžื—ืจื• ืืช ืขืœื•ืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืืš ื•ืจืง ืœืคื™ ืžืฉืš ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืจืš ื•ืœืœื ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช
    ื‘ืกื•ื’ ื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ. ื”ื’ื“ืื’’ื˜ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื›ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ืง ืฉื™ืฉื“ืจื’ื• ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื’ื™ื ื”
    ื•ืขื•ื“.. ืจืืฉื™ืช, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืžืฆื•ื
    ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืžืคื ืง ื‘ื”ืจืฆืœื™ื” ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื• ืืชื ื’ืจื™ื, ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ
    ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ืžื™ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืขืกื” ื•ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืžื™ื“ืข ืืชื ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ
    ืืช ื”ืขื™ืกื•ื™. ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ืœื“ื™ืจืช
    ืžืกืื–’ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™ ื‘ื”ืจืฆืœื™ื” ? ืขื™ืกื•ื™ ืื™ืจื•ื˜ื™
    ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ื ืžืชืจื—ืฉ ืžืชื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœื›ื ื•ืื™ืคื” ืฉื‘ื
    ืœื›ื, ืืชื ืงื•ื‘ืขื™ื.